Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Jean de Gaigneron, Painter (1890-1976)

The Mystery of Jean de Gaigneron, 

Count de Gaigneron 


Part of  the research contained in this Blog Entry was motivated by an e-mail we received from a "Sudouest" journalist. She wanted a biography on Jean de Gaigneron (also known as "Count Jean de Gaigneron"). At the time, we were not sure of the painter's relationship to the Gaigneron Family. It was however evident  that Jean de Gaigneron was very well connected and formed part of the artistic and intellectual  milieu of France during the early 20th century. Despite Jean de Gaigneron's socialite status, there was no authoritative biography on him either in English or in French.

In constructing a biography on Jean de Gaigneron, the first step we took was to prove his relationship to the Gaigneron family. This was not an easy task because of the existence of two Jeans: Jean de Gaigneron and Jean-René de Gaigneron, both painters. 

Thanks to the new research (2015) conducted by Mr. Jean CATHERINE, we can  now establish that these names referred to two different people. Jean-René was the son of the eldest brother of Jean de Gaigneron, Ludovic de Gaigneron (Source 40). Mr. Catherine has also created the first Wikipedia entry on the painter in French. We are grateful for his collaboration.

Our first  breakthrough in placing Jean within the Gaigneron family came when researching  the website "E-Bay" for clues into the life of the painter. We found  several funeral cards belonging to the GAIGNERON MORIN branch of the House of GAIGNERON. Among the funeral cards  was one that caught our attention. It was from 1908 and commemorated the life of  the  Viscount Marie-Paul- Philippe- Maxime GAIGNERON MORIN (1842-1908). The names of his children  appeared there as Ludovic, Elie and Jean (see below).

Funeral Card of Viscount Marie-Paul- Philippe- Maxime GAIGNERON MORIN (Image Courtesy of Ebay, Source 1)

The archives of the  National Library of France (BNF) helped confirm the authenticity of the funeral card: the newspaper "Le Gaulois" (November 8, 1908) published the obituary of the Viscount Marie-Paul-Philippe- Maxime GAIGNERON MORIN. In that publication, his three children were listed: Ludovic, Elie and Jean de Gaigneron. This obituary confirmed that a "Jean" existed and was related to the  Gaigneron family. We were therefore inclined to assume that "Jean" from the obituary and the "Jean" the painter were one and the same.

Further confirmation that our assumption was correct came while reading the biography of the diplomat and English socialite Sir Harold Nicolson (1886-1968). The author of the biography, James Lees-Milne, states that the painter Jean de Gaigneron was the youngest of two brothers (Source 2). 

For further information on the life and times of Jean de Gaigneron, please consult the below chronology, the genealogy on the Gaigneron-Morin branch of the Gaigneron family, and the French Wikipedia.

See Gaigneron-Morin genealogy


Portrait of Jean de Gaigneron 
Jean de Gaigneron as a child  (unknown painter) Source, 49

Images of Jean de Gaigneron 

Jean de Gaigneron (Circa 1930) Source 5

Jean de Gaigneron to the right with the Prince of Wales (Edward VIII) in a hat (1926)


The Artistic Signature of Jean de Gaigneron 


1915 Signature "J. de Gaigneron" from sketch (Source 40)

From the  painting of  the Countess Thérèse d'Hinnisdal (1878-1959)



Chronology of the Life of Jean de Gaigneron


- In 1890, Jean is born to Viscount Marie-Paul- Philippe- Maxime GAIGNERON MORIN (1842-1908) and  his second wife Agnes de Gontaut-Biron (1862-1941) in Paris, France.

He was half-brother of Ludovic de Gaigneron and brother of  Marie-Joseph- Élie de Gaigneron (Source 6). Jean was the youngest of both brothers. His given name was Marie- Joseph-Paul-Jean de Gaigneron-Morin (Source 40).

For artistic purposes, it appears that Marie Joseph Paul Jean de Gaigneron-Morin took the name of "Jean de Gaigneron" and "Count Jean de Gaigneron".

Anne-Armand-Élie de Gontaut-Biron, French Ambassador to the German Empire and Grand-Father of Jean de Gaigneron

Biographical Note on the Viscount Anne-Armand-Élie de Gontaut-Biron:

He was one of the foremost diplomats during the Franco-Prussian War. Born in Paris in 1817 and died in the same city in 1890. He was the son of Aimé-Charles-Zacharie-Élisabeth, comte de Gontaut-Biron (1776-1840) and Adélaïde de Rohan-Chabot.The Viscount Anne-Armand-Élie de Gontaut-Biron was married in 1841 to Augustine Henriette Marie Mathilde Radegonde de L' Espinay and issued several children and among them was Agnes de Gontaut-Biron (1862-1941).
Apart from being the Ambassador of the French Emperor Napoleaon III he was also a senator for Basses-Pyrénées under the Third French Republic. He began his political career in 1876 and was reelected until 1881.

See entry on the  Maison de Gontaut-Biron

- On July 18, 1908, the brother of Jean de Gaigneron, Ludovic de Gaigneron Morin become engaged to Marie Josephe de CUMONT and married her that year (Source  7 ). The marriage issued one son: Jean-René de Gaigneron who was also a painter (Source 14).

- On November 8, 1908, Viscount Marie-Paul- Philippe- Maxime GAIGNERON MORIN (1842-1908) died. On the funeral card and obituary announcement published in the newspaper "Le Gaulois" (Paris), Jean de Gaigneron is referred as the son of the Viscount of Gaigneron-Morin (Source 8 ). See below for newspaper excerpt.

- Circa 1910 Jean de Gaigneron began studying art under the French painter Othon FRIESZ (1879-1949). Friesz was part of the Fauvist art movement (Source 9)

Othon Friesz (1879-1949) Public Domain

"Sous-bois en automne" (1937) by
Othon Friesz (Source Public Domain)
Portrait of Marcel Proust by Jacques-Emile BLANCHE (Public Domain)
According to the the catalog-book "Succession du Comte Jean de Gaigneron", he was also the student of the painter  Jacques-Emile BLANCHE (1861-1942). Blanche was mainly a self-taught painter and distinguished himself as a portrait painter. Like Jean de Gaigneron, Jacques-Emile was also a friend of Marcel Proust. Apart from being a painter, Blanche was also an author (Source 34).

Perhaps, it was Blanche that inspired Jean de Gaigneron to turn into a portrait artist.

- October 10, 1911 Jean de Gaigneron entered the French Army (Source 40). He completed his military service on November 8, 1913 with the rank of Sargent.

- On August 2, 1914, Jean de Gaigneron was called back to active duty and remained so until 1919. He was wounded twice. The second time he was wounded while stationed in French Morocco (Source 40).

- 1917 Jean de Gaigneron, while stationed in French Morocco, did a first exposition in Rabat

- 1918 Jean de Gaigneron  participated in an exposition in honor of
" concours agricole général du Maroc" in Casablanca, Morocco. Some exposition took place at the Excelsior Hotel in Casablanca (Source 10).

Casablanca Hotel Excelsior Exposition (Source 33)

An early very positive review of the work of Jean de Gaigneron from the 1918 exposition in Morocco read, 

"il me reste, enfin, à parler de trois toiles de M. de Gaigneron qui sont parmi les plus séduisantes, à coup sûr, de cette galerie et en particulier cette kasbah toute baignée et pénétrée de la lumière du sud, claire, rose, ou plutôt d'un rouge que le soleil dévore, haute et grandiose où s'acheminent, comme un vol d'hirondelles blessées au creux d'un vieux mur, des femmes chleuhs revenant de la fontaine, émouvante théorie des bleues et menues Coéphores. M. de Gaingeron est m'assure-t-on, très jeune. N'est-ce pas dire qu'il a un bel avenir? " (Source 33)

In summation, "if Jean de Gaigneron continues to paint the way he does, he will without any doubt have a fantastic future" (Source 33, my own translation).

- April 1919 Jean de Gaigneron meet Sir Harold Nicolson in Paris and introduced him to French writer Marcel Proust (1871-1922). Nicolson and his wife become friends with Jean de Gaigneron (Source 22)

Sir Harold Nicolson and The Hon. Victoria  (Vita) Mary Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson (Public Domain)

Biographical Note on Harold Nicolson (1886-1968):

He was a British diplomat and Member of Parliament. Nicolson was fluent in French and spend  some time in Europe. He was a key adviser during the Treaty of Versailles which concluded World War I (1914-1918).  Sir Nicolson and Vita had two children: Lionel Benedict and Nigel Nicolson. Jean de Gaigneron painted Lionel Benedict (see below). 

Biographical Note on Victoria (Vita)  Mary Stackville-West (1892-1962):

She was an an author of several biographies on such people as Paul Verlaine (1921) and Saint Joan of Arc. Vita wrote literary studies on Tennyson, Byron, and Sainte-Beuve. She belonged to the same literary circle as Virginia Wolf (1882-1941) and Violet Trefusis (1898-1972).

- August 1, 1919 documented correspondence with the French author Marcel Proust
 Marcel Proust writes to Jean de Gaigneron:

Marcel Proust (1871-1922) Public Domain
"When you speak to me of cathedrals, I cannot but feel touched at the evidence of an intuition which has led you to guess [deviner ] what I had never mentioned to anyone, and here set down in writing for the first time—that I once planned to give to each part of my book a succession of titles, such as Porch, Windows in the Apse , etc. . . . so as to defend myself in advance against the sort of stupid criticism which has been made to the effect that my books lack construction, whereas I hope to prove to you that their sole merit lies in the solidity of their tiniest parts. I gave up the idea of using these architectural titles because I found them too pretentious, but I am touched at finding that you have dug them up by a sort of intelligent divination" (Source 11 )

[" Et quand vous [Jean] me parlez de cathédrale, je ne peux pas ne pas être ému d’une intuition qui vous permet de deviner ce que je n’ai jamais dit à personne et que j’écris ici pour la première fois : c’est que j’avais voulu donner à chaque partie de mon livre le titre : Porche I, Vitraux de l’abside, etc. pour répondre à l’avance à la critique stupide qu’on me fait du manque de construction dans des livres où je vous montrerai que le seul mérite est dans la solidité des moindres des parties" (cité par Tadié, Proust et le roman, 2003, p. 232-233)]

- 1919  Exposition at the Salon d'automme

- On April 14, 1920, Jean de Gaigneron had an exposition of four portraits in Paris. One of the portraits exposed was of the Princess Marie MURAT (née Rohan-Chabot). She was an art gallery owner, a painter, and writer (Source 41).

- On April 24, 1920 Jean de Gaigneron's work received a positive critique in the cultural and political magazine "Le Monde Ilustré" ( Source 12) 

- Circa 1921 The Museum of Art in Brooklyn, New York received a gift from Felix Wildenstein entitled "Still Life" by Jean de Gaigneron

- 1922 The Museum of Art of Brooklyn, New York received a gift from A. Borders. The painting was entitled "Street in Fez"

- July 1924 François FOSCA's published a positive review of the work of Jean de Gaigneron in his article "Le Salon de Tuileries" ("Gazette de Beaux-Arts").

Biographical Note:
  François FOSCA (also known as Georges de Traz) was a well known literary and art critic. Born in France in 1881 and died in Switzerland (1980).

- 1924 Jean de Gaigneron is photographed with the Prince of Wales, the future Edward VIII, on a beach in the French riviera. 

- In 1928 Jean Gaigneron had an exposition of his paintings at "Le Studio" (Source 13)

- December 1928 Jean de Gaigneron published an article on painting and sculpture in the journal "Europe Nouvelle"

(Source 38)

- June 1, 1929 published a review of the work of Henri Matisse (1869-1954) in the magazine "L'europe nouvelle..."

- July 6, 1929 Jean de Gaigneron stated in the "Europe Nouvelle" about his former art teacher, Othon Friesz:

"La couleur chez Friez, si vivante et si raisonnée, n'est  pourtant pas l'essentiel. Je me souviens de l'avoir entendu dire que l'expression consacrée 'c'est joli de couleur', employée par tant de gens, ne signifie rien. Un tableau et beau pour d'autres raisons, la couleur étant ce que le temps altére le plus vite" (Source 9, p. 109)

- July 4, 1930  the nephew of Jean de Gaigneron, Jean-René  had an exposition at the Gallery Hirshman. Jean-René was he son of the Viscount Ludovic de Gaigneron-Morin. 

(Source 14)

- Circa 1930 Jean de Gaigneron was photographed at the Villa L'Ombrellino in Florence, Italy with socialite Violet Trefusis (née KEPPEL).

Jean de Gaigneron and Violet Trefusis (Source 15)

- November 26, 1932 Exposition at the "Galerie Cardo" art work entitled "Visions de Grèce".

- 1932 created Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor (Source 40).

- November 1935 Exposition at the Gallery Bonjean of portrait of the Viscountess de CONTADES (Source 16)

- 1939 Jean de Gaigneron re-enters the French Army with the rank of Captain and is later a prisoner of war in Saint-Lô  and later taken to Germany. By 1941, Jean de Gaigneron was freed and was living in France.  (Source 40)

- 1947 The Parisian gallery of art Charpentier published  a short review of the works of Jean de Gaigneron. In the review, the author Lucien Fabre lists 41 paintings by Jean de Gaigneron (Source 39)

- 1976 Death of Jean de Gaigneron and publication of the catalog-book "Succession Du Comte Jean De Gaigneron - Tableaux - Souvenirs....". The catalog-book contained many personal artifacts of Jean de Gaigneron including letters to French literary figures such as Paul Valéry (1871-1945), Jean Cocteau (1889-1963), Andé Gide (1869-1951), and Marcel Proust.

Source: Private Collection

The Artistic and Social Circles of Jean de Gaigneron 

From newspaper articles, it is clear that Jean de Gaigneron shared the same active social life that his older brother the Viscount Elie de Gaigneron and his wife had in Paris. For example, on the eve of World War II, Jean de Gaigneron was an invited guest  at the Embassy of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg celebrating the independence of that country (Source 16).

Jean de Gaigneron was equally connected to the literary and artistic world of France of the early part of the 20th century.  Literary scholars know of him because of the letter that Marcel Proust wrote to him in 1919. In the letter, Proust confessed  to Gaigneron that the architecture of  a cathedral acted as the primary metaphor for his writing (Source 17).

Despite his obvious connections to the artistic elite of France, Jean de Gaigneron appears to have been ignored by contemporary art historians. We have not been able to locate a single biography or study of his art work published in print or online. 


 If you are the holder of the copyrights of any of the images listed above and believe that you have not been properly credited or would like your image taken down from this blog, please contact the "Blog Administrator" (herein Gaigneron de Marolles).

Portraits by Jean de Gaigneron 

"Portrait of a young woman" (Source 18)

"Portrait of  Francis Poulenc" (Source 19)

Biographical Note:
Francis POULENC (1899-1966) was a French pianist and composer. He belonged to the social group of Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, and Paul Èluard

Nelly de Contades  (Source 20)
 Biographical Note:
Nelly de CONTADES (nèe de Benardaky) was the sister of Marie de Benardaky (1874-1949), the first love of Marcel Proust. Her sister (Marie) was first married to Prince Michael Radzivill. 

Portrait of Anna de Noailles, 1910's by Jean de Gaigneron (Source 21)

Biographical Note:
Anna de Noailles, (née Princess Anna Elisabeth Bibesco-Bassaraba de Brancovan) was born in 1976 and died in 1933. She was a writer and part of the inner circle of Marcel Proust. Anna was painted by such notables as Antonio dela Gandara and Philip de Lazlo. The portrait done of her by Jean de Gaigneron today can be seen at Musée Carnavalet in Paris. 

"Portrait d`homme" (Jean Giraudoux) - No Date (Courtesy of Salle d'Exposition du Chesnay) Source 22
Biograhical Note: 

Thanks to an e-mail from the owner of the above painting we were able to find out that it is that of the French author Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944). He was considered to be a very important dramatist during 19th and 20th centuries. Apart form writing, Jean Giraudoux was also a diplomat  . 

It is difficult to known when Jean de Gaigneron become friends with Giraudoux but there were several letters exchanged between. The last letter appears to be one where the author thanks Jean de Gaigneron for his panting (Source from the "Succession Du Comte Jean De Gaigneron - Tableaux - Souvenirs....", Number 154)


Portrait of Speed Lamkin (Circa 1948 - Source 23)

Biographical Note:

Speed Lamkin (1928-2011) was an American playwright and winner of the O. Henry Award. He was part of the  inner circle of American authors such as Truman Capote and Tennessee Williams.  

Portrait of Lionel Benedict Nicolson (1914-1978), Circa 1920 (Source 35)

Biographical Note:

Lionel Benedict Nicolson (1914-1978) was the eldest son of Harold Nicolson and Vita Sackville-West. He was an author and art historian. The painting was acquired by the National Trust after the death of Nigel Nicolson, OBE, who was the younger brother of Lionel Benedict Nicolson (Source 35).

Luisa Adele Rosa Maria, Marquesa
Casati Stampa di Soncino (1881-1957), 1922 Source 36
Biographical Note:

Luisa-Adele-Rosa-Maria, Marquesa Casati Stampa di Soncino (née Amman) was born in Italy in 1881. She was the daughter of the Count and Countess Alberto Amman (Source 37). 

Currently, the image is on loan for a major exposition on the life and times of the Marquesa Casati at the Palazzo Fortuny in Venice. The exposition entitled "La divine Marquesa" includes other paintings done of  Luisa Casati by several artists (Source 36).

Please follow link for further details:


La Baronne de Cabrol - 1946

Marguerite d'HARCOURT (1915-2011) was born in Paris to the Marquis Étienne d'Harcourt and Marie de CRUEL. She married the Baron Fred de Cabrol in 1937. The Cabrols were very good friends of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor. Daisy often loved to be in coustume and enjoyed the parties of Vicomtesse Marie-Laure de Noailles (Source 42). 

La Comtesse Thérése d'Hinnisdal (Source 44)

The Countess Thérèse d'Hinnisdal (1878-1959) was the daughter of Henri d'Hinnisdal and Marie de Bethune-Sully (1848-1930). She was also the sister of Henriete and Elie-Anne d'Hinnisdal. The Countess d'Hinnisdal was responsible for the restoration of the Château de TILLOLOY where she died at the age of about 81 years of age. 


Landscape by Jean de Gaigneron

"Village du sud-est de la France"


"Vue d'un village" by Jean de Gaigneron (Source 24)



The Sea by Jean de Gaigneron


"People Sun -bathing" (Source 25)


View of a harbor, South of France (Source 26)



Morocco in the Imagination  of Jean de Gaigneron 


"L'oasis du grand sud" by Jean de Gaigneron (Source 28)

"Marocains dans la palmeraie" (Source 29)


Moroccan Caravan 1916 (Source 30)

"Une ville arabe" (Source 46)

"View Morocain" (date?) Source 26

"Le Jouer de Raita, Maroc " (Source 45)

"Arabes Devant la Casbah" (Source 47)


Other Paintings by Jean de Gaigneron 

Nature morte aux huitres Huile sur toile (Source 31)

A room at Coombe Court, Kingston Hill (Source 43)

Flowers, oil on canvass (Source 49)

Fruit on oil and canvass (Source 49)


Sketches by Jean de Gaigneron

Portrait de Roger Accaries 1915 (Source 40)

"An old man" (Source 48)



Partial List of the Work of Jean de Gaigneron [Source 39]


1) Barque 
2) Salues
3) Fenêtre de ferme
4) Bouquet de fleurs
5) Bain de soleil  
6) Portrait de M. Davau
7) Portrait de M. Jacques-Emile Blanche 
8) Portrait de Mme. de Rouvre
9) Portrait de M. de Dulmen
10) Portrait de Mlle. Després de Losme 
11) Portrait de la Comtesse de Lesseps 
12) Portrait de Louise de Vilmorin
13) Portrait de Francis Poulenc (See Above)
14) Portrait de Mlle. Portes
15) Portrait de la Princesse Chavchavadezé
16) Portrait de M. Louis de Crussol ...... and others. 



Blog Entry Sources

1) Image of the Funeral Card of Marie-Paul- Philippe- Maxime GAIGNERON MORIN (1842-1908) was taken from e-bay. The card is currently on the market.

2) James Lees Milne published a two volume biography on Sir Harold Nicolson (1886-1968). Retrieved excerpt from "google.books".

3) The name of "Jean-René" de Gaigneron appears in the newspaper "La Semaine à Paris" (July, 1930). Retrieved from the National Library of France (BNF) online source.

4)  Obituary of Marie-Paul- Philippe- Maxime GAIGNERON MORIN (1842-1908) published in the Paris newspaper "Le Gaulois" in 1908 and retrieved from the National Library of France (BNF) online source.

5)  Papers and Photographs of Violet TREFUSIS (née KEPPEL)  at Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Photograph taken from the private album of Violet TREFUSIS (Page 56). In the original photograph. the description reads "Count de Gaigneron". Jean is with a group of people in the photograph.

6) Further confirmation was provided thanks to the research done by Mr. Pierre Barbier de la Serre on the Gaigneron-Morin family.

7) "Les Mondes", Numéro 94, Paris 10/1908. Retrieved from the online archives of the National Library of France (BNF).

8) Obituary of Marie-Paul- Philippe- Maxime GAIGNERON MORIN (1842-1908) published in the Paris newspaper "Le Gaulois" in 1908 and retrieved from the National Library of France (BNF) online source.

9) Gauthier, Maximilien, "Othon Friesz...." (1957). The biographer states that Jean de Gaigneron was a student of Othon Friesz. Excerpt consulted on "Google.books".
10) Information on the exposition in Morocco in 1918 was retrieved from the article written by  Mylène Théliol, « L’association des peintres et sculpteurs du Maroc (1922-1933) », Rives méditerranéennes [Online], Jeunes chercheurs, Online since 15 June 2010. Document was retrieved  on May 15, 2014 from  URL :

11) Translation of Marcel Proust's letter taken from the online article "Literary Architecture"  (;;doc.view=print)

12) "Le monde illustré"  24 avril 1920 p. 220. Retrieved from the online archives of the National Library of France (BNF)

13) Advertisement from the cultural newspaper "La Semaine a Paris" (Paris, 1928). Retrieved from the archives online of the National Library of France (BNF).

14) Excerpt from the French cultural newspaper "La Semaine à Paris" (July, 1930). Retrieved from the National Library of France (BNF) online source.

15) Image of Jean de Gaigneron and Violet Trefusis. Papers and Photographs of Violet TREFUSIS (née KEPPEL)  at Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Photograph taken from the private album of Violet TREFUSIS (Page 56)

16) Portrait of la Vicomtesse de CONTADES. Exposition in November 1935 at the Gallery Bonjean. Information retrieved from "La revue de l'art ancien et moderne" (November 1935 issue) online source at the National Library of France (BNF).

17) Ambassades et consulats:Revue Diplomatique et Mondaine (Jan/Feb 1939, p. 29). Retrieved from the National Library of France (BNF).  

 18) Image "Portrait of a young lady" is the courtesy of Invaluable, LLC

19) Image "Portrait of Francis Poulenc" is the courtesy of Bridgeman Art Library. Original located at the Museum of the Opera Garnier in Paris (

20)  Portrait of la Vicomtesse de CONTADES. Exposition in November 1935 at the Gallery Bonjean. Information retrieved from "La revue de l'art ancien et moderne" (November 1935 issue) online source at the National Library of France (BNF).

21) Image Portrait d'Anna de Noailles taken from blog "Terresdefemmes" ( The portrait is today located at  the Musée Carnavalet, Paris

22) Image "Unknown Portrait" courtesy of "The Sale Room" (

Recent e-mail contact between the Blog Administrator and the owner of the painting have reveled that the portrait is of the French author Jean GIRAUDOUX.

23) Image of Speed Lamkin, Circa 1948 retrieved from "Neglected Books"  ( Portrait is currently located at the New Orleans Museum of Art. A gift from the Speed Lamkin to the museum.

24) Image "Vue d'un village" courtesy of "Christie's" auction house. Painting sold. No date  

25) Image "People Sun-Bathing" is the courtesy of Invaluable, LLC

26) Image "View of a harbor, Southern France" is the courtesy of  "Artnet" (

27) Image of "Greek Pantheon" courtesy of "Artvalue". The image has been removed to the Gaigneron-Morin entry on this blog. The painting appears to have been made by Jean-René de Gaigneron Morin, the nephew of Jean de Gaigneron.

 28) Image "L'oasis du grand sud" courtesy of Etude Gestas ( No date.

29) Image of Moroccan Market and  Morocains dans la palmeraie retrieved from "ArtNet" (

30) Image "Moroccan Market"  (1916) is the courtesy of  "Artnet" (

31) Image of "Nature morte aux huitres Huile sur toile" taken from Catalogue-Gazette (retrieved from 

32) Short biographies (Biographical Note) on key people in the life of Jean de Gaigneron that otherwise would not be known  by the public was written with Wikipedia as a source for information. 

33) Photo from the Casablanca exposition of French-Maroc artwork and critique of the work of Jean de Gaigneron were taken  from "France-Maroc: Revue mensuelle ilustrée.No 12, 15 dec. 1918" Retrieved from National Library of France (BNF) online resources.   

34) Biography of Jacques-Emile Blanche taken from "Wikipedia" and note on Jean de Gaigneron being a student of Blanche was taken from "Succession du Comte Jean de Gaigneron" (1976). 

35) Image of portrait of Lionel Benedict Nicolson (1914-1978) is the courtesy of "BBC Your Paintings"

36)  The image of the Marquesa Casati was the courtesy of Madame Lucile AUDOUY via e-mail communication October 14, 2014. The painting is part of the private collection of Madame AUDOUY and will be exhibited in Venice this year.

37) Biography on the Marquesa Casati was paraphrased  from the entry of the same name on Wikipedia.

38) The image from the article of Jean de Gaigneron was taken from the online magazine 
"Europe Nouvelle" (December 22, 1928). This was made possible by the National Library of France (BNF).

39) The list of works by Jean de Gaigneron were taken from the short study conducted by Lucien FABRE and published in 1947 by the Galerie Charpentier.The original list contains 41 paintings that are attributed to Jean de Gaigneron

40) New information on Jean de Gaigneron was kindly provided via e-mail by Mr. J. CATHERINE.
He is the author of  the first  French language wikipedia article  on Jean de Gaigneron. For further information see:

Note, that the blog entry on Jean de Gaigneron was published (May 14, 2014) in the blog "La Maison de Gaigneron" before the existance of the wikipedia entry on Jean de Gaigneron.

41) The information on Marie de Rohan-Chabot (Princess Murat), 1876-1951, was taken from the French Wikipedia entry by the same name.

42) La Barone de Cabrol is the courtesy of the Wikipedia article on Jean de Gaigneron. The biography on the Baronne de Cabrol was taken from the "Telegraph" article on her death in 2011.

43)  The image was taken from the online auction house "Invaluable" which offered the painting for sale on March 1, 2016. The painting was entitled  A ROOM AT COOMBE COURT, KINGSTON HILL Inscribed verso, oil on canvass.

44) Image of the painting of Countess Thérèse d'Hinnisdal (1878-1959) by Jean de Gaigneron was taken from the website Ebay. The painting was placed on the market and has been certified to be an original.

45) "Le Jouer de Raita, Maroc" was recently purchased by a member of the family from an auction that took place in the US.

46) The image of "Une ville arabe" comes from the website'entr%C3%A9e-d'une-ville-arabe- The painting was sold in 2007 for over 1,000.00US.

47) The painting "Arabes devant la casbah" is the courtesy of the website

48) The drawing of an old man is not signed by Jean de Gaigneron but it contains a dedication and the name of "Gaigneron-Morin" which could indicate the drawing was done by Jean de Gaigneron or his nephew Jean-René de Gaigneron-Morin.

49) Recently on January 2019,  the French auction house of Drouot sold a large number of paintings by Jean de Gaigneron. These images come from their online list of sold paintings.

 Gaigneron de Marolles ©
Updated 3.10.19